1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMICs. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMICs can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMICs. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMICs in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice. 8) Retain a level of responsive research capacity to address emerging global health research requirements (Units only).
SHEAR will support world-leading research and innovations in flood and drought risk monitoring and warning systems in Sub-Saharan Africa and landslip prone regions of South Asia. To enable greater and more effective investment in disaster resilience and earlier action to respond to imminent natural hazards by providing decision makers with enhanced risk mapping and analyses and more reliable warning systems
Private Enterprise Development in Low-Income Countries (PEDL) is a joint research initiative of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) and the Department For International Development (DFID). It offers a competitive research grants scheme for projects related to the behaviour of firms in Low-Income Countries (LICs) that aim to better understand what determines the strength of market forces driving efficiency in these countries. It will pursue a research agenda focusing on private-sector development. Existing research suggests that the private sector in these countries faces a multitude of constraints. These constraints interact with one another. For example, the strategic interaction of firms with market power will be affected by the regulatory regime governing both new entrants and incumbent firms. What is needed is research which allows us to understand how these constraints interact. PEDL will pursue a range of approaches that promise to produce credible research results that will be useful for policy-making, supporting research related to private enterprises of all sizes, initially focused on four themes: modelling market frictions in LICs using newly available data, understanding how constraints interact using micro-founded macro models, the dynamics of SMEs - informality and entrepreneurship and the role of export-oriented industries in driving growth. PEDL offers a mixture of substantial research grants and smaller “Exploratory” grants. Grants will be awarded on a competitive basis, with applications solicited from researchers throughout the world.
To increase and strengthen vocational training capacity by improving access and quality of skills training in India. This will lead to directly or indirectly support 1 million people with quality training by 2022.
This project focuses on a contemporary publishing phenomenon that lies at the intersection between cultural trend and social movement, artistic intervention and community environmental project. Known in Latin America as editoriales cartoneras (or catadoras in Brazil), the phenomenon is often translated as 'cardboard publishing', because one feature that unites the diverse publishing projects is the material from which they make their books: recycled cardboard. Yet the term 'cartonera' encompasses far more than the English word 'cardboard'. It is also a reference to the cartonero figure - the cardboard collector or waste picker, a product of economic crisis and unemployment - that was so central in the formation of the first cartonera publishing organisation Eloisa Cartonera in Buenos Aires (2003). It was from cartoneros that Eloisa's founding artists and writers gained inspiration and purchased cardboard, and it was with them that they set up a productive publishing workshop that has since published around 200 titles. Editoriales cartoneras might thus also be translated as 'waste-picking publishers'. Some of them, like Eloisa and Dulcineia (São Paulo), continue to work directly with waste-pickers. Many others, though, have recycled the idea, and adapted it to different local contexts, communities and social needs: some work with groups of school children from deprived areas, others with indigenous communities, to name just two examples. What underpins these divergent, fragmented projects, however, is the shared notion of working productively and creatively from a situation of precariousness - material, social, political, economic and/or environmental. In this comparative study of cartoneras from Brazil and Mexico, we explore 'precarious publishing' in its two closely inter-related guises: an artistic trend and a social movement. In methodological terms, this requires a transnational, interdisciplinary approach that analyses the projects simultaneously as a collection of artistic texts and objects (through literary analysis) and a set of production methods, everyday interactions, organizational logics and social networks oriented toward social transformation (through ethnographic fieldwork). This project makes a number of contributions to research across different humanities and social science disciplines. From sociological and anthropological perspectives, it explores the ways in which theories of social movements can be productively broadened out to include - or dialogue with - phenomena that, like cartoneras, are not only artistic in character, but also fragmentary, fragile and precarious in nature. From a literary angle, it fills a significant gap in research: though these publishers have attracted attention from scholars and journalists since 2003, their focus has largely been on the unusual ways in which they publish (organizational structures and processes), leaving the literary form and content of the books untouched. Our project explores how the content and form of the books (as literary, philosophical or political texts and as art objects) play a key part in creating new relations, communities and meaning. Finally, our innovative use of interdisciplinary methods makes this a ground-breaking study for scholars approaching similarly complex movements that are emerging worldwide in response to increasingly precarious economic, social and environmental conditions. Beyond academia, our project is designed to create productive international collaborations between academics, publishers, cultural promoters and library archivists, which will lead to a number of shared outputs: a series of blog posts co-written by publishers, academics and librarians; a participative exhibition in London, in which participants will contribute to a new cartonera book; and a collection of cartonera texts accessible to UK-based readers and res earchers at Senate House Library, Cambridge University Library and the British Library.
Optimising biological nitrogen (N) use is pivotal to maximizing crop yields and ameliorating the adverse environmental impacts of excess agricultural N application. New opportunity exists to provide solutions to cereal crop N use via the translation of basic research into application. The Cambridge-India Network for Translational Research in N (CINTRIN) will establish a complete but flexible pipeline connecting developmental research, crop breeding, agritechnology and extension. The framework of CINTRIN will be provided by the University of Cambridge, NIAB and ADAS, together with ICRISAT, Punjab Agricultural University, NIPGR and the technology companies KisanHub (SME) and BenchBio (SME). The framework partners are widely connected, opening many opportunitites to expand and extend the VJC in future. CINTRIN will provide innovative approaches to tackle crop biological N use. Firstly, it will promote a new understanding of the underpinning science associated with optimization of crop N use, built on an exciting new discovery of distinct life history strategies for N use in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This work has identified N sensitive (NS) and N insensitive (NIS) types which vary fundamentally in their developmental response to N. This work indicates that the ability to protect seed yield under low N supply appears to come at the expense of the ability to exploit high N supply effectively. This model for developmental N use has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about the N requirements and uses of crops. Within CINTRIN, a translational pipeline will couple the molecular basis of plant development to the physiology of N uptake and partitioning. Through advanced genomics and pre-breeding, new N ideotypes will be defined in crops important for the UK (wheat) and India (wheat, sorghum, pearl and foxtail millet). Field observations and data- driven methods of technology transfer will allow dissemination of the results and ultimately advice on cultivar-specific fertiliser N application to be offered directly to farmers. Secondly, the exchanges in personnel between India and the UK via CINTRIN will enhance the skills of the next generation of plant technologists and provide an exemplar for building capacity in fundamental plant sciences and translation into germplasm and agronomic outputs in both the UK and India. Thirdly, CINTRIN will build on the enterprise and spin-out capacity associated with existing Cambridge and India SME alliances, whereby knowledge can be harnessed by industry to develop wealth and employment in the agri-tech sector. Overall, the vision for CINTRIN is that networks of applied expertise will feed-forward from advances in developmental biology, through to genomics-led pre-breeding of cereal crop staples with optimal biological N use. The JVC will assimilate feedback from CINTRIN translational and outreach activities which relate to sustainable intensification and yield resilience, particularly via farmer networks in the UK and India. In the UK this will be linked to the Defra Sustainable Intensification Platform (SIP; NIAB leads Project 1, investigating Integrated Farm Management for improved economic, environmental and social performance with a group of 30 partners spanning universities, research institutes, farming industry and environmental organisations). CINTRIN will deliver a translational pipeline to produce new ideotypes for optimized N use in agriculture. It will provide training in developmental research, and new knowledge relevant to underpinning optimal biological N use for sustainable intensification. It will promote excellence in science in both the UK and India and provide innovation for application in commercial farming activities.
The goal of the project as a whole is the development of a prototype geophysical multi-hazard forecast system for Greater Kuala Lumpa city region. The system will improve contingency planning and risk management, and reduce the economic and societal impacts of the hazards. The main focus is on short-range (hours to days) and high-resolution (city-scale) capability, regarding hazards such as flash-floods, landslides, heat waves, air pollution. There is also a long-range (weeks to seasons) component of the meteorological package, aimed at providing early warning regarding the activity of various meteorological events. The project consortium contains 16 Malaysian and UK academic and commercial participants. The objectives of the main NERC British Geological Survey (BGS) component of the project work plan are: (i) To enhance hazard assessment of geophysical hazards (such as landslides and sinkholes) in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city region pilot study area, with a focus on their association with meteorological conditions (e.g., rain thresholds). (ii) To contribute to the reduction of the impact of geophysical hazards such as landslides sinkholes (e.g., lives lost, economic, environmental), through preparedness via risk assessment and early warning, and build resilience to landslides and sinkholes in vulnerable and hazard-prone areas of Greater Kuala Lumpur. (iii) To get desired & useful tailored information to appropriate stakeholders in ways they can access, by the use of risk information in practice (e.g., web-based information gathering/dissemination to stakeholders). (iv) To disseminate project knowledge to the broader south-east Asian region along with capacity building to ensure project's lasting legacy. The above objectives will be carried out in collaboration with the Minerals and Geoscience Department of Malaysia, University of Malaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Geomapping Techology Sdn. Bhd., Param Agricultural Soil Surveys (M) Sdn. Bhd., JBA, Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants Ltd. and Cuesta Consulting Ltd., which are partners in the consortium.
The goal of the project as a whole is the development of a prototype geophysical multi-hazard forecast system for the Malaysian region, in particular for the largest city, Kuala Lumpur. The system will improve contingency planning and risk management, and reduce the economic and societal impacts of the hazards. The main focus is on short-range (hours to days) and high-resolution (city-scale) capability, regarding hazards such as flash-floods, landslides, heat waves, air pollution. There is also a long-range (weeks to seasons) component of the meteorological package, aimed at providing early warning regarding the activity of various meteorological events. The main objectives of the University of Cambridge (UoC) component of the project workplan are: 1. assess the skill of long-range retrospective forecasts with regard to rainfall, near-surface temperature and wind, using data available from the Met Office dynamical long-range prediction system. Although individual weather events are not predictable at long range, estimates can be made of the levels of activity within a season. 2. assess the additional skill that might be obtained by applying statistical calibration methods to counteract systematic biases in the dynamical systematic 3. where skill is sufficiently high, develop a prototype system that could be applied to long-range forecast data to provide outlooks specific to Malaysian risk management requirements. Work toward these objectives will be carried out in collaboration with the Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD), which is a partner in the consortium. UoC will also contribute to the mesoscale meteorological component led by MMD. The project consortium contains 16 Malaysian and UK academic and commercial participants. The UoC principal investigator is the leader of the UK contribution.
Below is a list of outcomes expected to be achieved by the SUNRISE consortium: 1. Development of new fabrication routes to deliver low-cost solution processed and vapour deposited perovskite PV modules. 2. New stable solar energy materials that match the requirements for climatic conditions appropriate to the Indian sub-continent. 3. New device architectures for tandem solar cells designed to achieve >25% efficiency that include Perovskite/ CIGS, c-Si/ Perovskite structures. 4. With funded existing partners adapt and implement integration and storage systems for electrical power from company and research partners for real world demonstration. 5. Development of efficient processes for the conversion of biomass in to fuel and power. 6. With funded existing researchers from Gates Foundation develop new strategies for sanitation and to obtain clean water for the villages in India. 6. Deployment of newly developed and directly building integrated flexible CIGS panels by our industrial partners (BIPV Co) in demonstration buildings in India 7. Development of demonstration communities in India (led by Tata Trust and Tata Cleantech Capital) to showcase new and existing technology and create local supply chains for low cost manufacturing of renewable energy products 8. Demonstrable knowledge transfer and development of the skills of the Indian researchers achieved via collaboration and joint study. Key will be to develop the close working relationships that exist in teh UK between academicv partners and industry in an Indian context; essentially this will involve creating an Industrial Doctorate (EngD) concept for challenge led research and an innovation hub where industrial and academic teams can be brought together to solve key challenges.
Under-nutrition and infection remain major public health problems in African countries, but are being added to by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, conditions that have previously been seen more frequently in developed countries. These conditions are expected to become the most common cause of death in Africa by 2030. Diabetes is rising in frequency in many countries around the world, but the rate of increase in Africa is estimated to be the fastest anywhere and more than 40 million Africans are predicted to have the disease by 2035. The main drivers of this rise in NCDs in Africa, in common with other countries around the world, are changes in dietary and physical activity behaviour and the development of obesity at different stages of life. However, the factors that are driving these changes in behavior are different between countries. These go beyond individuals' attitudes and choices to factors that determine the food supply, its cost and availability, the nature of work and the structure of built environment. The development of understanding of these wider factors is a necessary part of the process of identifying possible solutions to these public health challenges. This International PhD partnering scheme builds on existing institutional links between the University of Cambridge and the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. The two lead departments both aim to improve public health by researching and developing interventions to reduce the risk of chronic disease at critical developmental periods across the lifespan. The programme will specifically aim to develop work aimed at population-level solutions to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases by linking South African researchers to the United Kingdom Centre of Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR); a multi-disciplinary centre of public health research excellence aiming to develop understanding about the population determinants of diet and activity behaviour and to evaluate population interventions.
This application demonstrates that the quality of legal institutions can matter for economic development and that important policy lessons can be learned by China from the UK in this regard. This application recognises that China has been a remarkable economic success story but the country also faces new challenges as its economy enters a more mature phase. In particular, it needs to avoid the 'middle income trap' i.e. where a country has costs that are now too high to compete with low-income countries but where productivity does not match those in high-income countries. There are economies in Asia including Singapore and Hong Kong SAR that have emerged successfully from middle income status. Both these economies are built on UK law and are renowned for the quality of their legal infrastructure in supporting development of the financial system. The application suggests how China might also benefit from the UK experience in building its legal infrastructure. But the application recognises China's singular journey and avoids simplistic conclusions that certain consequences will inevitably follow form certain formal changes. It recognises the need for a continuous process of adaptation and development; learning appropriately from experience and responding sensitively to local conditions. The application demonstrates in particular how legal reforms can support economic growth through - enhancing the protections available to minority investors - supporting the availability of credit and contributing to lower-cost credit - supporting the restructuring of ailing businesses. In these areas we seek to provide options for enhancing and reforming the legal and financial system in China that are based upon the UK and other experience. We acknowledge that there are choices to be made between means and ends and that the relationship between means and ends is contingent and uncertain. The data we rely on will come principally from the World Bank Doing Business (DB) reports and rankings which are grounded on the notion that smarter business regulation promotes economic growth. The DB rankings have been issued annually since 2004 and the 2016 rankings includes 11 sets of indicators for 189 economies. Each economy is ranked on the individual indicators and also in an overall table. Currently, the UK is 6th in this table and China 84th but Singapore is 1st and Hong SAR is 5th which shows that it is possible for Asian economies to rank highly. In our project, we will explore deep into the detail underlying the Protecting Minority Investors, Getting credit and Resolving Insolvency indicators. These 3 indicators appear particularly pertinent to the development of a mature financial system and in relation to them all China ranks far below the UK. On protecting investors, China is ranked as 134th whereas the UK is 4th. We show how the gap can be bridged and how China can learn from the UK experience by examining critically how the UK has protected minority investors and ascertaining what measures of protection might work most effectively in Chinese conditions. Our approach takes the relevant DB rankings as a guide but subjects them to critical scrutiny and engaging systematically with the methodology underpinning the rankings; addressing the robustness of this methodology and considering alternative approaches. For instance, we will test the robustness and limitations of the DB 'resolving insolvency' data on China using Jiande Municipal People's Court in Zhejiang Province as a case study. This makes the process of data collection and analysis more manageable. 20 interviews with creditors and practitioners will be undertaken in Zhejiang Province and data on business closures from the local branches of the China Business Registration Authorities and the China Pension Management Authorities will also be collected. We will also use econometr ic analyses based on detailed micro data from other data sources
Our aim is of a world in which all DAC list countries make rapid progress to the achievement of the SDGs and the delivery of emissions reductions necessary for the Paris Climate Change Agreement by selecting, designing, financing, and managing dams to meet local, national and regional development needs and preferences. To fulfil this aim we set the following objective: to transform how new dams and systems of new and existing dams are assessed, selected, designed, and operated to provide water, food, and energy security for all. This goal will be achieved through both research (the creation of new knowledge) and capacity development (raised capacities of partner and non-partner organisations), underpinned by development of shared interdisciplinary tools that integrate engineering (on system modelling, dam selection, design and operation), social sciences (on economic, social and political and processes and impacts), physical sciences (climate, hydrology, ecology) and agricultural sciences (crop production systems). Our specific objectives are: 1 To deepen understanding of how nexus system interventions (new dams, or systems of dams, and their operation) cascade through socio-economic, engineered, ecological and political systems, and use this knowledge to help stakeholders develop and negotiate solutions that are economically, socially and environmentally beneficial. Specifically, we will replace the current approach of designing dams in isolation with a whole systems-based approach that combines conceptual and numerical models of socio-economic/natural/engineered systems with novel decision-analysis techniques. 2 To enhance the technical and institutional capacity of partner and non-partner researchers and policy-makers to ensure that dam decision-making leads to economically, socially, and environmentally desirable outcomes. Specifically, we seek to move from 'cut and paste' 'Terms of Reference' documents (ToRs) when dam-building projects are put out to tender to ToRs crafted to achieve development outcomes that are sustainable and equitable. 3 To create a cross-disciplinary network of researchers and policy-influencers and inter-disciplinary tools for dam decision-making globally, which will continue to operate after programme completion and that can transfer learning to the 'next generation' of nexus system planners world-wide. Reaching those specific objectives will be done so as to be able to satisfactorily respond to the following urgent questions which are the heart of our Nexus system research agenda on dams: 1 What's happening now? Who is selecting, designing, and financing dams and systems of dams today; what approaches and tools do they use; and, what shapes and incentivises decisions about dam selection and operation? 2 What should be improved? What technical and political knowledge is required so that new dams can be selected and designed to maximise and appropriately allocate benefits, promote resilient and sustainable development, and minimise conflict and socio-ecological loss; what decision processes need improving; and, should a wider set of stakeholders be invited into the decision process? 3 How? What skills, approaches, processes, tools and academic/professional networks would help create a new generation of engineers, applied social scientists and policy analysts in the UK, in cases study countries and in other countries to achieve our mission?
The concept of 'development corridors' is increasingly used to support economic growth in Africa, driven by international as well as national interests. Development corridors have tremendous development potential yet they face significant challenges. These include uneven development impacts, traversing so-called "underutilised" lands that are generally already populated and managed, and vulnerability to climate change. Such challenges result in a lack of appropriate research capacity in the region. This proposal aims to addresses these challenges through engagement with decision makers and by developing relevant capacity within research institutions and researchers in eastern Africa, China and the UK. The research is targeted to generate decision-relevant evidence and feed it into key decision making processes in order to improve the sustainable development outcomes of investments in development corridors. The proposal is focused on corridors in eastern Africa, particularly the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) and the Lamu Port and Lamu-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor (LAPSSET) in Kenya. The consortium is led by the United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), who would be contracted as 'WCMC', and comprises five universities (Cambridge, London School of Economics, Nairobi, Sokoine University of Agriculture and York) and three boundary agents (World-Wide Fund for Nature (Tanzania), African Conservation Centre (ACC) and the China National Centre for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation (NCSC) of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). The work is structured around three outcomes and six Work Packages, fully integrating research and capacity development, and significant policy engagement and outreach.
This funding call provides a timely opportunity to build on an existing programme of collaborative research on multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (MDR- and XDR-) tuberculosis (TB). The two nodes (the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, and the University of Cambridge) have highly complementary skills that encompass epidemiology, human and pathogen genetics, immunology, cellular and molecular biology, diagnostic microbiology, drug discovery, and clinical trials experience, together with access to extensive patient populations and isolate collections. This multidisciplinary combination will be used through an effective partnership to develop a holistic approach to new diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and therapeutic approaches for drug-resistant TB. Novel mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance in M. tuberculosis will be explored using cutting edge techniques and correlated with clinical outcomes. Five different but closely related projects will be undertaken by partners in hennai and Cambridge, with the overall goal of understanding the pathways and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in TB and identifying potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We will focus on research questions that have the potential to bring benefit to individual and public health in India, and provide solutions to a problem that affects a third of the world's population.